Saturday, December 8, 2007

Deadline and Goodbye

For those of you who didn't turn in your papers on Friday, Dec. 7, your final deadline is at 5 p.m. Monday, Dec. 10. Just turn in a paper to my mailbox in the journalism office, GAB 102, or slide it under my office door, GAB 101B. I need a hard copy, so you don't need to post it to your blog.

Have a nice winter break and take care. Best to all of you.

Sunday, December 2, 2007

Tips to help you with your final project

For those still having trouble locating a study or studies, think about using Google Scholar. Go to the main Google home page, and click on "more" at the top. You'll see a menu of other Google search services, and one is called "Scholar." It's a search engine for academic sources.

Once you find an article that might be useful, you might then click and find that you are in a database that sells articles. Don't buy an article--you can get almost everything free through our library at Go to e-journals, type in the name of the journal using your EUID, and you're set.

I've asked you to use APA or MLA style for your references. Have you ever tried a service called citation machine? Go to or type in "citation machine" into a search engine, and you'll enter a site that generates your citations automatically.

Once you get to that web site, you'll click on the left hand menu, either MLA or APA. That will take you to a page with fields--you just enter the author's names, name of publication, year, etc., and then the citation machine generates a complete citation that you can copy and paste into your paper.

Please email me with your questions this final week. Take care.

Thursday, November 29, 2007

Writing your final project

You are going to focus more on method and findings, and less on reviews of literature, since we've spent the semester talking about that literature. That's why you need only a study to shadow, and this can be more for its methods than for its subject. You can look at patterns of fathers in TV sitcoms, using the music video chapter for its pattern- or theme-seeking methods. We will talk more in class, if you still have questions.

Some last links for our consideration

We'll wrap up a lot of things this Friday, and I'll look forward to seeing you then for a kind of roundup of ideas and methods that we've talked about this semester. If you like, bring a favorite web link or DVD and we'll make time to show and/or to talk about as many as we can. I'm bringing popcorn for the crowd.

If you get a chance to go to YouTube, here are some key words to use:
"A Girl Like Me," "Unilever," "Dove Onslaught" (we've already looked at this one in class), "Slob Evolution," and "Dove Evolution." Some of these will make you laugh, although the first is a sobering look at the effects of media? society? history? racism?

Interested in or concerned about stereotypes of white males? Click here:

and here, for stereotypes of fathers in general:

In class, we've spoken a bit about smart dads from past decades, including Cliff Huxtable, Ward Cleaver and others, compared to less-than-bright Homer Simpson, Ray Barone, a few WB dads and others. This could make a good study, if you are still casting about for a topic.

bell hooks, a philosophy prof at City College in New York, has interviews up at YouTube and essays on the web, to discuss Spike Lee's work and other issues. You may find her discussions at YouTube by just typing her name, and you may also read her work about depictions of men in film at:

Monday, November 26, 2007

A link about the Axe-Dove advertising controversy

News reports on African-American women

Here's information from NBC Nightly News, which will feature a series of stories about black women, starting tonight:


New York, N.Y. – November 15, 2007 – Throughout the week of November 26, "NBC News With Brian Williams" will take a look at the issues facing African-American women across our nation in a new series "African-American Women: Where They Stand." The series will cover a wide-range of issues from their role in the ’08 Presidential race, to the increased health-risks that they need to be concerned about.

Monday’s installment will discuss African-American women's progress in the education field. Nearly two-thirds of African-American undergraduates are women. At black colleges, the ratio of women to men is 7 to 1. And that is leading to a disparity in the number of African-American women who go on to own their own businesses. Rehema Ellis will talk to educators, students and businesswomen about why this disparity exists.

Tuesday, Ellis will look at relationships within the African-American female community. Many agree the gender disparity in education and business among African-Americans is having an effect on relationships that African American women have. Some even say the implications could redefine "Black America's family and social structure." In the past fifty years, the percentage of African-American women between 25-54 who have never been married has doubled from 20% to 40%. (Compared to just 16% of white women who have never been married today). Ellis sits down with the members of a Chicago book club and talk about this difference and how it impacts them.

Dr. Nancy Snyderman will discuss the increased risks for breast cancer for African-American women on Wednesday. Mortality rates for African-American women are higher than any other racial or ethnic group for nearly every major cause of death, including breast cancer. Black women with breast cancer are nearly 30% more likely to die from it than white women. Premenopausal black women are more than twice as likely to get a more aggressive form of the disease. And, not only are African-American women more likely to die from breast cancer, but they're less likely to get life-saving treatments. Dr. Snyderman will profile one of the only oncologists in the world who specializes in the treatment of African-American women with breast cancer.

On Thursday, Ron Allen will take viewers to South Carolina -- the first southern primary state -- and ask the question: Will race trump gender or gender trump race? In South Carolina, black women made up nearly 30 percent of all democratic primary voters in 2004. This year, polls show a significant number are undecided, torn between choosing the first African-American or first female Presidential candidate. Allen talks with the undecided, as well the state directors for the Clinton and Obama campaigns, who happen to be African-American women.

To close the series on Friday, Dr. Snyderman will raise the frightening statistic that African-American women are 85% more likely to get diabetes, a major complication for heart disease. And, like breast cancer, more black women die from heart disease than white women. Dr. Snyderman will profile a leading expert and a unique church-based outreach program in South Carolina that seeks to spread the word about heart disease risks to black women congregants.

Mara Schiavocampo, Digital Correspondent for "Nightly News," will address two hot topics in the African - American community: interracial dating and the impact of hip hop music on black women. Interracial dating is a growing trend in the African - American community. An poll found that 81% of participants approved of black women dating non- black men. According to a U.S. Census Bureau report in 2000, 95,000 black women were married to white men. In 2005, that number increased to 134,000. Schiavocampo will talk to experts about the trend and discuss how this defines the "Black family" of the future.

Schiavocampo will convene a panel of leading black men and women from the hip-hop industry for an engaging discussion on whether hip hop lyrics and videos positively or negatively affect black women. The roundtable also will address how these portrayals are affecting relationships between black women and black men.

Consumers can go online to join the discussion and share their thoughts on message boards. They can also read and respond to blog entries at <> .

Alexandra Wallace is the executive producer of "NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams." Bob Epstein is the senior broadcast producer, and Rich Latour is the senior producer for this series.

Thursday, November 15, 2007

Final assignment

You'll find a scholarly study that you would like to recreate with new texts and data (you may choose any study from our textbook, from our class discussion, or from a journal).

For instance, you'll decide to model your own study based on a previous content analysis of a newspaper or you'll replicate a semiotic study of women's images in magazine ads by choosing updated ads. Your "shadow" project will quickly summarize this earlier study and its results; it will touch on one of the most important sources in this earlier study's literature review; it will explain your own new corpus and method; and it will report your findings and conclusion.

Your study should be double-spaced and between 750 and 1,000 words. It will have a cover sheet, your own original research and discussion (following the outline below), a references page that includes citations for the study you are shadowing and for one of its most important sources; and attachments with charts or samples of texts that you analyzed.

Here's an outline to use, as shown in this (shortened) example.

Cover sheet

Men all demure in ads, but not so with women

Two-sentence summary of findings:
Men in ads for television shows in two entertainment magazines were all depicted in demure dress. Women were depicted as partially clad or suggestively dressed, as well as demure.

Summary of the previous study:
The previous study by Reichert, Lambiase, Morgan, Carstarphen & Zavoina (“Beefcake & Cheesecake,” Spring 1999, Journalism & Mass Comm Quarterly) reveals that women are depicted more explicitly than are men in magazine ads, during a comparison of ads from 1983 and 1993. In this study of six magazines, women were three times more likely to appear in sexualized dress than men.

Its most important foundation literature and how it relates to your own project:
The most relevant study used by the previous study is the study by Soley & Kurzbard (“Sex in Advertising,” 1986, Journal of Advertising), which established used a similar coding scale, with these categories: demure, suggestive, partially clad, and nude. This earlier study, upon which the Reichert, et al., study is based, found that while the percentage of sexually oriented appeals in ads hadn’t increased, the amount of explicitness in the ways women were depicted had increased over time.

Corpus and method:
My corpus comprises all full-page ads for television shows, appearing in the July 29, 2005, issue of Entertainment Weekly and the Sept. 26, 2005, issue of People Magazine. The method is quantitative and qualitative content analysis, in which the main character in each ad was coded first as male or female, and then was coded for dress attributes. Descriptive analysis was used to discover information that cannot be captured in coding schemes.

People magazine included 10 depictions of main characters in ads for television shows: 7 of women and 3 of men. All three depictions of men were coded as demure; 4 depictions of women were demure, 2 were suggestive, and 1 was partially clad. In Entertainment Weekly, there were 3 main characters coded: 1 man who was demurely dressed, and 2 women who were partially clad. Both magazines featured more depictions of women as main characters than men. A typical “partially clad” depiction could be found in an ad for Desperate Housewives, in which a main character was dressed in revealing evening wear (and reclining). Yet, demure depictions were captured for dramas such as Grey’s Anatomy and Commander in Chief, in which women were depicted in progressive roles.

This mini-study fits much of the prior research on advertising depictions of men and women, in which females are much more likely to be depicted sexually and are more likely to be depicted more explicitly. A larger study of print ads for television shows could be attempted to see if this pattern continues, and this information could be compared to findings from studies of broadcast advertising for television shows. Are men ever depicted in sexual ways in these ads, and if so, when? It would also be interesting to discover whether the women depicted in television advertising, if dressed provocatively, were main characters in the shows themselves or were simply minor characters used sexually to attract attention to the show.
[Your report should be between 750 and 1,000 words.]

[You'll list at least two.]


Tuesday, November 13, 2007

Part 2: Asian and Asian-American stereotypes

Here's an article that might help you identify films or other media for analysis of these stereotypes:

Resources for final projects, part 1: GLAAD

The first link is to GLAAD's effort to identify stereotyping, along with either positive or demeaning images of gays and lesbians and others in entertainment media. One of the links is for information about the transgendered character on "Ugly Betty." The second link is to GLAAD's news round-up; it might be an important resource for those of you who want to analyze coverage of these issues in the news media.

GLAAD Eye on the Media

Current issues

Other helpful links include these:

Wednesday, November 7, 2007

Here's the link to the new blog site

We are still working on this site, incorporating your changes and correcting typos. But, go ahead and go to the site to see if we have your blog address and to determine if it works.

Relevant articles on race, music videos, and hip hop

Here are two links to stories from this week's NYTimes, one with the headline "Protesting demeaning images in media" and the second titled "For clues on teenage sex, experts look to hip-hop."

The first article covers protests by the group "Enough Is Enough," a group of mostly black activists who are picketing in front of the homes of Viacom executives every weekend. The second article does a good job of questioning whether watching such videos has adverse affects on teens. As we've discussed in class, this is a tough question to answer, whether we're talking about video games, music videos or other media.

Monday, November 5, 2007

Special program

At 4 p.m. Wednesday, Nov. 7, two Holocaust survivors will be speaking in Room 255 of the Eagle Student Service Center about their experiences and their recent book about being separated after being sent to the Nazi death camps and how they found each other again. Rosalie and William Schiff live in the D/FW area, and it's a real privilege to have them as speakers on our campus.

The event is free and open to the public.

Friday, October 19, 2007

blog list

Acevedo, Jazmine
Alber, Ashley
Almond, Ashleigh
Ana Colores, Ana
Anderson, Melissa
Armes, Garret
Baker, Ashley
Bauer, Tyler
Bayarena, Andrew
Bell, Racheele - Chelly
Borgen, Audrie
Borrego, Adrienne
Bracamontes, Aaron
Burger, Heidi
Burns, Christina
Calhoun, Debi
Campbell, Mark
Campbell, Spencer
Cardenas, Juana
Carrillo, Zelmy
Castine, Brandi
Coleman - Pace, Antwone
Collie, Samantha
Couch, Sarah
Cox, Kimberly
De Santiago, Juana Gladys
Delgado, Jesse
DeNoon, Britttany
Denzin, Mathew
Donnelly, Tim
Dyer, Dana
Farris, Lauren
Fishta, Emirjon
Ford, Sharlini "Star" SFord02
Ghaemmaghami, Arezou
Gillette, Elizabeth
Glicker, Kristine (Krissy)
Gollette, Elizabeth
Gonzales, Vance
Gullage, Krystal
Harmon, Andrea
Harrel, Cheryl
Harrell, Joseph
Hazard, Haley
Heck, Kathern (Charlie)
Henderson, Jason
Illing, Geoff
Ingram-Hibbs, Brittany
Johnson, Constance
Johnson, Craig
Kern, Stephanie
Knickerbocker, Lauren (Kelly)
Komolafe, Ife
Laca, Nicole
Last, Marla
Lee, Yu-kun
Lewis, Tara
Libic, Minka
Lopez, Virginia
Lund, Dorit
Marquez, Carolina
Mason, Chloe
Mccoy, Tara
Mihalco, Kristen mihalcokm
Minton, David
Moralez, Jimmy
Morten, Nicole
Neal, Martisha babytisha1984
Palmer, Ana
Pekar, Cassandra
Perez, Sheila
Posey, Jessica
Randolph, Lisa
Rhima, Sarah
Rowland, Christina
Ruiz, Erica
Ryan, Sean
Saxton, Brian
Scott, Patrick
Setyono, Edmund
Siden, Emily
Singleterry, Adriann
Smith, Holly
Spencer, Pat
Stafford, Chris crs0172
Taylor, Stefanie
Tomlinson, Rachel
Tumbwe, Nathaniel
Turner, Elizabeth
Tye, Megan megantye
Uduebor, Valentine ValentineU
VanArsdale, Lindsey
Vonkaysone, Christopher
Warden, John
West, Patricia
White Eagle, Monica
White, Richard
Williams, Lindsay
Williams, Marvin
Williams, Rayven
Wilson, Lindsay

A confession of sorts

Click here for a link to a Dallas Morning News columnist, writing about her own stereotyping and pre-fab storyline for a murder in McKinney. I wish I could say there was some introspection on her part, in terms of the hype that builds around these stories and how the media use such stories to make money. She is one of the reporters who worked on the "all-American girl" murders from our case study. Link to news story.

Friday, October 12, 2007

Two more links for Friday

Two links from Advertising Age:

Article by Pepper Miller: Is Black Back? African American's Preferences for "Black" vs. "African American"

Column by Bob Garfield on Heineken Draftkeg's sexist commercial

Thursday, October 11, 2007

Videos and web sites for class

Since we're talking tomorrow about pron (yes, I misspelled that on purpose, in case my mom checks this blog), here's a link to new pronographic fashions.
(Ravenstoke "documentary" for Axe)

From Axe:
(A campaign for Unilever’s Axe body spray and deodorant launched in spring of 2007 used a microsite, or a small product-based web site, to offer downloads of its Bom Chicka Wah Wah commercials, ringtones, and theme song.)

And from another brand from the same parent company:

More for Friday

In Deb Merskin's chapter on pornography and fashion advertising, she outlines four areas of "sexual referents" in fashion ads that have a relationship with pornographic coding: hierarchy, objectification, submission and violence. We'll discuss this chapter more on Friday, using your examples, along with discussion of chapters 8, 10, and 16.

Race and news reporting

Check out this story about a school shooter, and notice when race is mentioned and why. Do you think this was justified? Thanks, Marla, for the link; we'll talk about this in class on Friday.

Monday, October 1, 2007

Vocab test and other matters

We'll be turning our discussion to other media beyond news media, starting with this week. We will continue, however, talking about news media as coverage arises that fits our course interests.

Blog every week, on topics related to your reading assignment. For this Friday, that includes chapters 8 and 12 from the textbook.

Define these terms, to help you study for your vocabulary test on Friday:

What is the difference between ethnicity and race?

The brown sugar stereotype in advertising (chapter 17)

The lotus blossom stereotype in advertising (chapter 17)

See the Sept. 6 entry at for more definitions, from our class discussion—those class notes will help you on the test.

What is media literacy or critical media consumption?

What is a case study?

What is content analysis?

What is interreality comparison and why is it important?

What is cultivation theory (p. 108 in textbook)?

What is a good definition of stereotyping? Be able to give some examples from the news media.

What is face-ism?

Friday, September 21, 2007

Pressure on Ken Burns for Latino images in "The War"

This documentary airs this week; basic story at:,0,2620347.story

Summary of debate about inclusion of Latino voices, from National Association of Hispanic Journalists:

Thursday, September 20, 2007

Civil rights reporting of past and present

Coverage of the Jena 6 may be found at, with video at:

An excellent history of reporting civil rights may be found here:

Again, I invite you to blog about coverage that you've seen over the past week on this event.

Guidelines for news reporting and disabilities

For coverage of disability issues:

National Center on Disability Journalism


Visit one of these sites and consider the stereotypes of disabilities that you are familiar with. Where did you get these stereotypes, from news coverage or mass media? Write about your perceptions on your blog.

Thursday, September 13, 2007

Remember, no class on Friday, Sept. 14

You'll be working on your projects, due next Friday, Sept. 21. Please email me with your questions about that; directions for the assignment are on your syllabus.

Thursday, September 6, 2007

Minorities in TV newsrooms (2006):

Minorities in print newsrooms (2004 & 2005):

Some definitions from last week:
Schema theory says that humans use “organized knowledge … abstracted from prior experiences” to process new info and to retrieve stored info (Graber, 1988).

Stereotyping fits with schema theory. Walter Lippmann in Public Opinion (1922) Walter Lippmann (1922) coined the term, which literally means “solid model.” He wrote that “the real environment is altogether too big, too complex, too fleeting for direct acquaintance. We are not equipped to deal with so much subtlety, so much variety, so many permutations & combinations.” However, stereotypes also are one dimensional, perjorative, and powerful identifiers that may seep into our schema.

Zingrone and “simplex,” as in mass media can only produce simplex--this also fits with schema and stereotyping, since our world is complex, but mass media can produce only simple ideas.

Agenda-setting theory: Long-held theory which states that media don’t tell people what to think, but rather, tell people what to think about.

Uses and gratification theory: Newer theory which states that media are best understood from viewpoint of audience, rather than from power of media or communicator. It asks "What do people do with media?" In this theory, audience is active, and media compete with other sources of need satisfaction.

Gerbner and other researchers believe that heavy exposure to cultural products (media) affect a person’s concept of reality (p. 108 in textbook). Social learning theory (Bandura) says that people model behavior that they see in others or from television/film (pp. 127 and 136 in textbook).

A helpful guiding philosophy for our class might be Anthony Appiah's "cosmopolitanism," which means not crude worldliness or colonialism. It's an informed cultural understanding, not just a traveler’s fleeting and shallow perspective. He works to find a way for cultures to agree on conversation and respect, when they can’t agree on values or truth; and he believes that “everybody matters.” Might also be a good method for journalists, who should resist stereotypes for something more substantive.

Tuesday, August 28, 2007

UNT JOUR 4250: Race, gender and media: A methods approach

Welcome to the class. This blog will help us stay in touch, and your own blog will help me understand your perspective as we move through the class. Your first job during the first week is to establish your own blog at

It's a fairly easy process, but be sure to write down several things as you set up your blog: your blog title (this blog is called "Race, gender ...."); and your blog's URL or web address (this blog's URL is Note that my blog does not have the word "blogger" in its URL, but "" Also, the URL does not contain "www." Neither will your blog.

Be sure to record these things, plus your password, too.

Once you've set up your blog, please write a first-week entry about your news habits. How do you get news? How often? What do you read and view both online and offline? About how many hours a day or a week do you intentionally seek out news coverage? And one last question: when you think about news media and their coverage of race or gender or sexualities or disabilities, what are your own assumptions?

I hope you've had a good first week on campus, and I look forward to getting to know you in class. Have a nice weekend.